Components of information technology are any hardware, software, device, or service that is required to deliver and process data. The term “components” covers a broad range of technological items such as electronics, office equipment, personal computer hardware, networking, digital networks, mobile devices, digital audio workstations, digital video workstations, and digital content such as images, text, and other forms of data. Components of information technology have grown from simple equipment to include complex devices such as personal computers, handheld computers, laptop computers, netbooks, desktop computers, digital signage, digital locks, and other electronic items. Components of information technology are the heart and soul of any IT organization.
Many of the components of information technology are designed to form the foundation for the information technology infrastructure (ITI). The ITI facilitates the creation and maintenance of an information technology infrastructure (ITI). This includes storage area networks (SANs), network access networks (NASs), client access networks (LANs), network switches, IP telephones, computer servers, backup servers, and other hardware components. Components of information technology also encompass the design and implementation of information technology applications. Application components include operating systems, middleware, database management systems, platform development tools, development languages, programming languages, web servers, network security components, memory management components, and user interface components.
Components of information technology are also divided based on their function. These components are categorized according to the role they play in an organization’s IT infrastructure. Some of the components of information technology are desktop servers, personal computers, network servers, printing equipment, networking equipment, photocopiers, fax machines, network hubs, servers for web mail, software vendors, telephone equipment, CD-ROMs, and other computer hardware components. All these components have a specific role in the IT infrastructure. However, there are some components that are considered as special-interest items and are not included in the mainstream components of information technology.
Components of information technology that fall under the non-mainstream category include components of information technology that are used by educational institutions. Components of information technology used in the educational sector include desktop computers for instructors, student workstations, reference books, reference guides, computers for distance learning, and various other computer hardware devices. Components of information technology used in the professional or business environment include desktop and laptop computers for staff members, printers, fax machines, network servers, network hubs, computer software, business information technology software, client server software, and various other computer hardware components. Another subcategory of components of information technology is that of “business-to-business” components. These components are used in businesses where the transaction or exchange of information is between the customer and the seller.
Components of information technology that are considered as special-interest items are those that are manufactured for specific purposes. One such example is medical equipment that is designed to be able to perform certain medical treatments. Components of information technology that fall under this category include ultrasound machines, endoscopes, and surgical instruments. Other types of specialized information technology instruments that are manufactured for use by medical professionals are x-ray machines, surgical scissors, stethoscopes, and other medical equipment. Other types of information technology equipment that are made possible by components of information technology include communication satellite phones, commercial cell phones, PDAs, wireless phones, and personal computers.
Components of information technology that are considered as peripheral devices are those that are made possible only by another component. Examples of peripheral devices include printers that need an external monitor, modems that have to connect directly to a specific computers, and other types of peripheral devices that need to be directly connected to a host computer system. Other components of information technology that are peripheral to computers include digital cameras, personal digital assistants (PDAs), handheld computers, keyboards, monitors, and scanners. Modem manufacturers make components of information technology that connect to wireless modems such as Bluetooth, WiMax, GSM, CDMA, and UMTS. Other computer components of information technology that are peripheral to computers include printers, disk drives, memory sticks, and video game consoles.
Information technology companies manufacture, design, and sell computer hardware, application software, database management systems, and other peripheral computer hardware components. A database management system is a component of information technology that provides a system for tracking, storing, and accessing electronic data. Database management systems also provide users with access to the files and data stored in the database. Database management systems control access to electronic data and provide information technology administrators the ability to centrally manage electronic data.
In order to build a robust information system, it is important to start with the proper components. The five parts of a good information system are: application software, database management, programming interface, hardware components, and communication. There are many components of information technology that fall into these five parts. With the exception of components of information technology such as servers and computer hardware, almost all components of information technology can be considered to be separate entities within an information system. However, when all components of information technology are considered together (including components of information systems such as web servers and print spools), they become one large entity known as an information system.